E-Business + Web Science Research Group Good Relations logo

The Product Types Ontology: Class Definition for "Banknote"

This page is part of http://www.productontology.org/, a huge, precise dictionary of product types and brand names for marking up Web sites with schema.org or the GoodRelations e-commerce standard.

Breaking news: schema.org has just implemented our proposal to define an additionalType property with the use of this service in mind!

Share on  Mention on Twitter  Set Google Bookmark  Bookmark on Delicious  Share on Facebook 


On this page: Usage(schema.org/Microdata, RDFa, Facebook) Contact Information Caching Policy License Acknowledgments References

pto:Banknote (rdf:type owl:Class)

URI http://www.productontology.org/id/Banknote
rdfs:subClassOf gr:ProductOrService, http://schema.org/Product
rdfs:label Banknote (as a class or brand name of products of services)
Translation(s):  عملة ورقية@ar;  Əsginas@az;  Papiagöd@bar;  Банкнота@be;  Банкнота@bg;  ব্যাংকনোট@bn;  Bilhed-bank@br;  Novčanice@bs;  Банкното@bxr; 


A banknote—also called a bill (North American English), paper money, or simply a note—is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank or other licensed authority, payable to the bearer on demand. Banknotes were originally issued by commercial banks, which were legally required to redeem the notes for legal tender (usually gold or silver coin) when presented to the chief cashier of the originating bank. These commercial banknotes only traded at face value in the market served by the issuing bank.Commercial banknotes have primarily been replaced by national banknotes issued by central banks or monetary authorities. National banknotes are often – but not always – legal tender, meaning that courts of law are required to recognize them as satisfactory payment of money debts. Historically, banks sought to ensure that they could always pay customers in coins when they presented banknotes for payment. This practice of "backing" notes with something of substance is the basis for the history of central banks backing their currencies in gold or silver. Today, most national currencies have no backing in precious metals or commodities and have value only by fiat. With the exception of non-circulating high-value or precious metal issues, coins are used for lower valued monetary units, while banknotes are used for higher values. Code of Hammurabi Law 100 (1755–1750 BC) stipulated repayment of a loan by a debtor to a creditor on a schedule with a maturity date specified in written contractual terms. Law 122 stipulated that a depositor of gold, silver, or other chattel/movable property for safekeeping must present all articles and a signed contract of bailment to a notary before depositing the articles with a banker, and Law 123 stipulated that a banker was discharged of any liability from a contract of bailment if the notary denied the existence of the contract. Law 124 stipulated that a depositor with a notarized contract of bailment was entitled to redeem the entire value of their deposit, and Law 125 stipulated that a banker was liable for replacement of deposits stolen while in their possession. In China during the Han dynasty, promissory notes appeared in 118 BC and were made of leather. Rome may have used a durable lightweight substance as promissory notes in 57 AD which have been found in London. However, Carthage was purported to have issued bank notes on parchment or leather before 146 BC. Hence Carthage may be the oldest user of lightweight promissory notes. The first known banknote was first developed in China during the Tang and Song dynasties, starting in the 7th century. Its roots were in merchant receipts of deposit during the Tang dynasty (618–907), as merchants and wholesalers desired to avoid the heavy bulk of copper coinage in large commercial transactions.During the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368), banknotes were adopted by the Mongol Empire. In Europe, the concept of banknotes was first introduced during the 13th century by travelers such as Marco Polo, with European banknotes appearing in 1661 in Sweden. Counterfeiting, the forgery of banknotes, is an inherent challenge in issuing currency. It is countered by anticounterfeiting measures in the printing of banknotes. Fighting the counterfeiting of banknotes and cheques has been a principal driver of security printing methods development in recent centuries. (Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banknote)

Note: The extraction of the abstract from the Wikipedia page may sometimes yield imperfect results. We are improving the algorithm regularly.

is rdfs:domain of gr:category gr:color gr:condition gr:depth gr:hasEAN_UCC-13 gr:hasGTIN-14 gr:hasMPN gr:hasManufacturer gr:hasStockKeepingUnit gr:height gr:isAccessoryOrSparePartFor gr:isConsumableFor gr:isSimilarTo gr:weight gr:width
is rdfs:range of gr:includes gr:isAccessoryOrSparePartFor gr:isConsumableFor gr:isSimilarTo

Note: This is a generic list. Some of the properties may not be applicable to this particular type of object.

Trademark Disclaimer:  Since this service returns class descriptions for potentiall any series of characters, it cannot indicate automatically whether a name is a registered trademark or otherwise protected. We assume no liability for the absence of trademark rights and other damages. See the section "License" below for details.

[back to top]


The following shows how to model that you offer to sell [a/an/some] Banknote for $ 19.99.

[back to top]

Microdata / Use with http://schema.org/Product

One of the most powerful usages of the class definitions from this site is to describe the type of your page and product for the schema.org product markup in Microdata syntax much more precisely.

Simply add the full URI of a class from this site, e.g. http://www.productontology.org/id/Banknote as an additional type as follows:

<div itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Product">
    <link itemprop="additionalType" href="http://www.productontology.org/id/Banknote" />
    <!-- other schema.org properties go in here -->

Note: In HTML5, it is valid to use the <link> element in the body of a HTML document.

Here is a complete example:

<!DOCTYPE html>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"/>
    <title>An offer to sell a / some Banknote</title>
<div itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Product" itemid="#product">
    <link itemprop="additionalType" href="http://www.productontology.org/id/Banknote" />
    <span itemprop="name">.. a short name for the object ...</span>
    Product description: 
    <span itemprop="description">... a longer description ...</span>
    <div itemprop="offers" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Offer" itemid="#offer">
        <span itemprop="price">$19.99</span> 
        <link itemprop="availability" href="http://schema.org/InStock" />In stock

Turtle Syntax

@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix pto: <http://www.productontology.org/id/> .
@prefix gr: <http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#> .
@prefix foo: <http://example.com/> .

# The object
foo:myObject a <http://www.productontology.org/id/Banknote> ;
	a gr:SomeItems ;
	gr:name "... a short name for the object ..."@en ;
	gr:description "... a longer description ..."@en .

# The agent (person or company) who is offering it
foo:ACMECorp a gr:BusinessEntity ;
	gr:legalName "ACME Corp" ;
	gr:offers foo:Offer .
# The offer to sell it
foo:Offer a gr:Offering ;
	gr:includes foo:myObject;
	foaf:page <http://URI_of_the_page_containing_the_offer.com>;
	gr:hasBusinessFunction gr:Sell ;
	gr:validFrom "2011-01-24T00:00:00+01:00"^^xsd:dateTime ;
	gr:validThrough "2011-12-24T00:00:00+01:00"^^xsd:dateTime ;
         [ a gr:UnitPriceSpecification ;
           gr:hasCurrency "USD"^^xsd:string ;
           gr:hasCurrencyValue "19.99"^^xsd:float ;
           gr:validThrough "2011-12-24T00:00:00+01:00"^^xsd:dateTime ] .

Note: Replace gr:SomeItems (http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#SomeItems) by gr:Individual if you are describing a unique object of that kind (e.g. antique furniture).

[back to top]


<!DOCTYPE html>
<html version="HTML+RDFa 1.1" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"/>
    <title>An offer to sell a / some Banknote</title>
<div xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"

<!-- The agent (person or company) who is offering it -->
   <div about="#ACMECorp" typeof="gr:BusinessEntity">
      <div property="gr:legalName">ACME Corp</div>
      <div rel="gr:offers">
<!-- The offer to sell it -->	
         <div about="#offer" typeof="gr:Offering">
            <div rel="gr:hasBusinessFunction" resource="http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#Sell"></div>
            <div rel="gr:includes">
<!-- The object -->	
               <div about="#myObject" typeof="http://www.productontology.org/id/Banknote">
                  <div rel="rdf:type" resource="http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#SomeItems"></div>
                  <div property="gr:description" xml:lang="en">... a longer description ...</div>
                  <div property="gr:name" xml:lang="en">.. a short name for the object ...</div>
            <div rel="foaf:page" resource="http://URI_of_the_page_containing_the_offer"></div>
            <div rel="gr:hasPriceSpecification">
               <div typeof="gr:UnitPriceSpecification">
                  <div property="gr:hasCurrency" content="USD" datatype="xsd:string">$ </div>
                  <div property="gr:hasCurrencyValue" datatype="xsd:float">19.99</div>
                  <div property="gr:validThrough" content="2011-12-24T00:00:00+01:00" 
            <div property="gr:validFrom" content="2011-01-24T00:00:00+01:00"
            <div property="gr:validThrough" content="2011-12-24T00:00:00+01:00"

Note: Replace gr:SomeItems (http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#SomeItems) by gr:Individual if you are describing a unique object of that kind (e.g. antique furniture).

[back to top]


<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<rdf:RDF xmlns:gr="http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#" 
<!-- The object -->
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="http://example.com/myObject">
    <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.productontology.org/id/Banknote"/>    
    <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#SomeItems"/>
    <gr:name xml:lang="en">... a short name for the object ...</gr:name>
    <gr:description xml:lang="en">... a longer description ...</gr:description>
<!-- The agent (person or company) who is offering it -->
  <gr:BusinessEntity rdf:about="http://example.com/ACMECorp">
    <gr:legalName>ACME Corp</gr:legalName>
    <gr:offers rdf:resource="http://example.com/Offer" />
<!-- The offer to sell it -->   
  <gr:Offering rdf:about="http://example.com/Offer">
    <gr:includes rdf:resource="http://example.com/myObject" />
    <foaf:page rdf:resource="http://URI_of_the_page_containing_the_offer"/>
    <gr:hasBusinessFunction rdf:resource="http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#Sell"/>
    <gr:validFrom rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime">
    <gr:validThrough rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime">
        <gr:hasCurrency rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">USD</gr:hasCurrency>
        <gr:hasCurrencyValue rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#float">19.99</gr:hasCurrencyValue>
        <gr:validThrough rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime">


Note: Replace gr:SomeItems (http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#SomeItems) by gr:Individual if you are describing a unique object of that kind (e.g. antique furniture).

[back to top]


prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> 
prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> 
prefix pto: <http://www.productontology.org/id/> 
prefix gr: <http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#> 
prefix foo: <http://example.com/> 

# Find the cheapest offer for a Banknote

?company gr:offers ?offer .
?offer a gr:Offering .
?offer gr:hasBusinessFunction gr:Sell .
OPTIONAL {?offer rdfs:label ?label } .
OPTIONAL {?offer gr:name ?label } .
OPTIONAL {?offer rdfs:comment ?label } .
OPTIONAL {?offer gr:description ?label } .
?offer gr:hasPriceSpecification ?p .
?p a gr:UnitPriceSpecification .
?p gr:hasCurrency ?currency .
?p gr:hasCurrencyValue ?price .
?offer gr:includes ?product .
?product a <http://www.productontology.org/id/Banknote> .
ORDER BY (?price)

[back to top]

Facebook Open Graph Protocol

You can also use the class definitions from this site for better describing the type of your page or product for the Facebook Open Graph Protocol.

Simply define the namespace prefix pto: in the <html> element of your page

<html version="HTML+RDFa 1.1" 

and use the compact URI (CURIE) pto:Banknote in combination with og:type as follows:

	<meta property="og:type" content="pto:Banknote"/>

A complete example is here.

[back to top]

Contact Information

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp

E-Business and Web Science Research Group
Chair of General Management and E-Business
Universität der Bundeswehr München
Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39
D-85579 Neubiberg, Germany

Phone: +49 89 6004-4217
eMail: mhepp(at)computer.org (preferred mode of communication)
Web: http://www.heppnetz.de/
Web: http://www.unibw.de/ebusiness/

[back to top]

Caching Policy

In order to minimize the load on the Wikipedia API, all requests are cached internally for 72 hours. This means that changes to the English Wikipedia will be available in this service within 72 hours or less if the same entry has been requested before. Classes not requested within the last six hours are always guaranteed to be in sync with the latest version in Wikipedia.

The RDF/XML dump file is updated every 12 hours only.

[back to top]


The class definition text is taken from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) license. Accordingly, the ontology class definitions are available under the very same license.

Trademark Disclaimer:  Since this service returns class descriptions for potentially any series of characters, it cannot indicate automatically whether a name is a registered trademark or otherwise protected. If you want us to block a certain name, please send your request including proof of your rights on the name to our contact address listed below.. Any of the trademarks, service marks, collective marks, design rights or similar rights that are mentioned, used, or cited in this service are the property of their respective owners. Their use here does not imply that you may use them for any purpose other than for the same or a similar informational use as contemplated by the original authors of the underlying Wikipedia articles under the CC-BY-SA and GFDL licensing schemes. Productontology.org is neither endorsed by nor affiliated with any of the holders of any such rights and as such cannot grant any rights to use any otherwise protected materials. Your use of any such or similar incorporeal property is at your own risk.

[back to top]


Thanks to Stefano Bertolo, Julien Chaumond, Bob Ferris, Kingsley Idehen, Axel Polleres, Andreas Radinger, Alex Stolz, and Giovanni Tummarello for very valuable feedback, and to Katharina Siorpaes and Daniel Bachlechner, who contributed to the initial analysis of the stability of Wikipedia URIs back in 2007.

The work on The Product Types Ontology has been supported by the German Federal Ministry of Research (BMBF) by a grant under the KMU Innovativ program as part of the Intelligent Match project (FKZ 01IS10022B).

BMBF logo

[back to top]


Wikipedia: Banknote, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banknote.

Hepp, Martin: GoodRelations: An Ontology for Describing Products and Services Offers on the Web, Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management (EKAW2008), Acitrezza, Italy, September 29 - October 3, 2008, Springer LNCS, Vol 5268, pp. 332-347.

Hepp, Martin; Siorpaes, Katharina; Bachlechner, Daniel: Harvesting Wiki Consensus: Using Wikipedia Entries as Vocabulary for Knowledge Management, IEEE Internet Computing, Vol. 11, No. 5, pp. 54-65, Sept-Oct 2007.

Valid XHTML 1.0 Strict