E-Business + Web Science Research Group Good Relations logo

The Product Types Ontology: Class Definition for "Liquefied petroleum gas"

This page is part of http://www.productontology.org/, a huge, precise dictionary of product types and brand names for marking up Web sites with schema.org or the GoodRelations e-commerce standard.

Breaking news: schema.org has just implemented our proposal to define an additionalType property with the use of this service in mind!

Share on  Mention on Twitter  Set Google Bookmark  Bookmark on Delicious  Share on Facebook 


On this page: Usage(schema.org/Microdata, RDFa, Facebook) Contact Information Caching Policy License Acknowledgments References

pto:Liquefied_petroleum_gas (rdf:type owl:Class)

URI http://www.productontology.org/id/Liquefied_petroleum_gas
rdfs:subClassOf gr:ProductOrService, http://schema.org/Product
rdfs:label Liquefied petroleum gas (as a class or brand name of products of services)
Translation(s):  Vloeibare petroleumgas@af;  غاز نفطي مسال@ar;  Пропан-бутан@bg;  তরলীকৃত পেট্রোলিয়াম গ্যাস@bn;  Gas liquat del petroli@ca;  گازی شلەکراوی نەوتی@ckb;  LPG@cs;  Nwy petroliwm hylifol@cy;  Flaskegas@da;  Flüssiggas@de; 


Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG or LP gas), is a flammable mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, and vehicles. It is increasingly used as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant, replacing chlorofluorocarbons in an effort to reduce damage to the ozone layer. When specifically used as a vehicle fuel it is often referred to as autogas. Varieties of LPG bought and sold include mixes that are mostly propane , mostly butane , and, most commonly, mixes including both propane and butane. In the northern hemisphere winter, the mixes contain more propane, while in summer, they contain more butane. In the United States, mainly two grades of LPG are sold: commercial propane and HD-5. These specifications are published by the Gas Processors Association (GPA) and the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). Propane/butane blends are also listed in these specifications. Propylene, butylenes and various other hydrocarbons are usually also present in small concentrations such as C2H6,CH4 and C3H8 Butane. HD-5 limits the amount of propylene that can be placed in LPG to 5% and is utilized as an autogas specification. A powerful odorant, ethanethiol, is added so that leaks can be detected easily. The internationally recognized European Standard is EN 589. In the United States, tetrahydrothiophene (thiophane) or amyl mercaptan are also approved odorants, although neither is currently being utilized. LPG is prepared by refining petroleum or "wet" natural gas, and is almost entirely derived from fossil fuel sources, being manufactured during the refining of petroleum (crude oil), or extracted from petroleum or natural gas streams as they emerge from the ground. It was first produced in 1910 by Dr. Walter Snelling, and the first commercial products appeared in 1912. It currently provides about 3% of all energy consumed, and burns relatively cleanly with no soot and very few sulfur emissions. As it is a gas, it does not pose ground or water pollution hazards, but it can cause air pollution. LPG has a typical specific calorific value of 46.1 MJ/kg compared with 42.5 MJ/kg for fuel oil and 43.5 MJ/kg for premium grade petrol (gasoline). However, its energy density per volume unit of 26 MJ/L is lower than either that of petrol or fuel oil, as its relative density is lower (about 0.5–0.58 kg/L, compared to 0.71–0.77 kg/L for gasoline). As its boiling point is below room temperature, LPG will evaporate quickly at normal temperatures and pressures and is usually supplied in pressurized steel vessels. They are typically filled to 80–85% of their capacity to allow for thermal expansion of the contained liquid. The ratio between the volumes of the vaporized gas and the liquefied gas varies depending on composition, pressure, and temperature, but is typically around 250:1. The pressure at which LPG becomes liquid, called its vapour pressure, likewise varies depending on composition and temperature; for example, it is approximately for pure butane at and approximately for pure propane at . LPG is heavier than air, unlike natural gas, and thus will flow along floors and tend to settle in low spots, such as basements. There are two main dangers to this. The first is a possible explosion if the mixture of LPG and air is within the explosive limits and there is an ignition source. The second is suffocation due to LPG displacing air, causing a decrease in oxygen concentration. A full LPG cylinder contains 85% liquid; the ullage volume will contain vapour at a pressure that varies with temperature. (Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquefied_petroleum_gas)

Note: The extraction of the abstract from the Wikipedia page may sometimes yield imperfect results. We are improving the algorithm regularly.

is rdfs:domain of gr:category gr:color gr:condition gr:depth gr:hasEAN_UCC-13 gr:hasGTIN-14 gr:hasMPN gr:hasManufacturer gr:hasStockKeepingUnit gr:height gr:isAccessoryOrSparePartFor gr:isConsumableFor gr:isSimilarTo gr:weight gr:width
is rdfs:range of gr:includes gr:isAccessoryOrSparePartFor gr:isConsumableFor gr:isSimilarTo

Note: This is a generic list. Some of the properties may not be applicable to this particular type of object.

Trademark Disclaimer:  Since this service returns class descriptions for potentiall any series of characters, it cannot indicate automatically whether a name is a registered trademark or otherwise protected. We assume no liability for the absence of trademark rights and other damages. See the section "License" below for details.

[back to top]


The following shows how to model that you offer to sell [a/an/some] Liquefied petroleum gas for $ 19.99.

[back to top]

Microdata / Use with http://schema.org/Product

One of the most powerful usages of the class definitions from this site is to describe the type of your page and product for the schema.org product markup in Microdata syntax much more precisely.

Simply add the full URI of a class from this site, e.g. http://www.productontology.org/id/Liquefied_petroleum_gas as an additional type as follows:

<div itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Product">
    <link itemprop="additionalType" href="http://www.productontology.org/id/Liquefied_petroleum_gas" />
    <!-- other schema.org properties go in here -->

Note: In HTML5, it is valid to use the <link> element in the body of a HTML document.

Here is a complete example:

<!DOCTYPE html>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"/>
    <title>An offer to sell a / some Liquefied_petroleum_gas</title>
<div itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Product" itemid="#product">
    <link itemprop="additionalType" href="http://www.productontology.org/id/Liquefied_petroleum_gas" />
    <span itemprop="name">.. a short name for the object ...</span>
    Product description: 
    <span itemprop="description">... a longer description ...</span>
    <div itemprop="offers" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Offer" itemid="#offer">
        <span itemprop="price">$19.99</span> 
        <link itemprop="availability" href="http://schema.org/InStock" />In stock

Turtle Syntax

@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix pto: <http://www.productontology.org/id/> .
@prefix gr: <http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#> .
@prefix foo: <http://example.com/> .

# The object
foo:myObject a <http://www.productontology.org/id/Liquefied_petroleum_gas> ;
	a gr:SomeItems ;
	gr:name "... a short name for the object ..."@en ;
	gr:description "... a longer description ..."@en .

# The agent (person or company) who is offering it
foo:ACMECorp a gr:BusinessEntity ;
	gr:legalName "ACME Corp" ;
	gr:offers foo:Offer .
# The offer to sell it
foo:Offer a gr:Offering ;
	gr:includes foo:myObject;
	foaf:page <http://URI_of_the_page_containing_the_offer.com>;
	gr:hasBusinessFunction gr:Sell ;
	gr:validFrom "2011-01-24T00:00:00+01:00"^^xsd:dateTime ;
	gr:validThrough "2011-12-24T00:00:00+01:00"^^xsd:dateTime ;
         [ a gr:UnitPriceSpecification ;
           gr:hasCurrency "USD"^^xsd:string ;
           gr:hasCurrencyValue "19.99"^^xsd:float ;
           gr:validThrough "2011-12-24T00:00:00+01:00"^^xsd:dateTime ] .

Note: Replace gr:SomeItems (http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#SomeItems) by gr:Individual if you are describing a unique object of that kind (e.g. antique furniture).

[back to top]


<!DOCTYPE html>
<html version="HTML+RDFa 1.1" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"/>
    <title>An offer to sell a / some Liquefied_petroleum_gas</title>
<div xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"

<!-- The agent (person or company) who is offering it -->
   <div about="#ACMECorp" typeof="gr:BusinessEntity">
      <div property="gr:legalName">ACME Corp</div>
      <div rel="gr:offers">
<!-- The offer to sell it -->	
         <div about="#offer" typeof="gr:Offering">
            <div rel="gr:hasBusinessFunction" resource="http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#Sell"></div>
            <div rel="gr:includes">
<!-- The object -->	
               <div about="#myObject" typeof="http://www.productontology.org/id/Liquefied_petroleum_gas">
                  <div rel="rdf:type" resource="http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#SomeItems"></div>
                  <div property="gr:description" xml:lang="en">... a longer description ...</div>
                  <div property="gr:name" xml:lang="en">.. a short name for the object ...</div>
            <div rel="foaf:page" resource="http://URI_of_the_page_containing_the_offer"></div>
            <div rel="gr:hasPriceSpecification">
               <div typeof="gr:UnitPriceSpecification">
                  <div property="gr:hasCurrency" content="USD" datatype="xsd:string">$ </div>
                  <div property="gr:hasCurrencyValue" datatype="xsd:float">19.99</div>
                  <div property="gr:validThrough" content="2011-12-24T00:00:00+01:00" 
            <div property="gr:validFrom" content="2011-01-24T00:00:00+01:00"
            <div property="gr:validThrough" content="2011-12-24T00:00:00+01:00"

Note: Replace gr:SomeItems (http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#SomeItems) by gr:Individual if you are describing a unique object of that kind (e.g. antique furniture).

[back to top]


<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<rdf:RDF xmlns:gr="http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#" 
<!-- The object -->
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="http://example.com/myObject">
    <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.productontology.org/id/Liquefied_petroleum_gas"/>    
    <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#SomeItems"/>
    <gr:name xml:lang="en">... a short name for the object ...</gr:name>
    <gr:description xml:lang="en">... a longer description ...</gr:description>
<!-- The agent (person or company) who is offering it -->
  <gr:BusinessEntity rdf:about="http://example.com/ACMECorp">
    <gr:legalName>ACME Corp</gr:legalName>
    <gr:offers rdf:resource="http://example.com/Offer" />
<!-- The offer to sell it -->   
  <gr:Offering rdf:about="http://example.com/Offer">
    <gr:includes rdf:resource="http://example.com/myObject" />
    <foaf:page rdf:resource="http://URI_of_the_page_containing_the_offer"/>
    <gr:hasBusinessFunction rdf:resource="http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#Sell"/>
    <gr:validFrom rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime">
    <gr:validThrough rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime">
        <gr:hasCurrency rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">USD</gr:hasCurrency>
        <gr:hasCurrencyValue rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#float">19.99</gr:hasCurrencyValue>
        <gr:validThrough rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime">


Note: Replace gr:SomeItems (http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#SomeItems) by gr:Individual if you are describing a unique object of that kind (e.g. antique furniture).

[back to top]


prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> 
prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> 
prefix pto: <http://www.productontology.org/id/> 
prefix gr: <http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#> 
prefix foo: <http://example.com/> 

# Find the cheapest offer for a Liquefied_petroleum_gas

?company gr:offers ?offer .
?offer a gr:Offering .
?offer gr:hasBusinessFunction gr:Sell .
OPTIONAL {?offer rdfs:label ?label } .
OPTIONAL {?offer gr:name ?label } .
OPTIONAL {?offer rdfs:comment ?label } .
OPTIONAL {?offer gr:description ?label } .
?offer gr:hasPriceSpecification ?p .
?p a gr:UnitPriceSpecification .
?p gr:hasCurrency ?currency .
?p gr:hasCurrencyValue ?price .
?offer gr:includes ?product .
?product a <http://www.productontology.org/id/Liquefied_petroleum_gas> .
ORDER BY (?price)

[back to top]

Facebook Open Graph Protocol

You can also use the class definitions from this site for better describing the type of your page or product for the Facebook Open Graph Protocol.

Simply define the namespace prefix pto: in the <html> element of your page

<html version="HTML+RDFa 1.1" 

and use the compact URI (CURIE) pto:Liquefied_petroleum_gas in combination with og:type as follows:

	<meta property="og:type" content="pto:Liquefied_petroleum_gas"/>

A complete example is here.

[back to top]

Contact Information

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp

E-Business and Web Science Research Group
Chair of General Management and E-Business
Universität der Bundeswehr München
Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39
D-85579 Neubiberg, Germany

Phone: +49 89 6004-4217
eMail: mhepp(at)computer.org (preferred mode of communication)
Web: http://www.heppnetz.de/
Web: http://www.unibw.de/ebusiness/

[back to top]

Caching Policy

In order to minimize the load on the Wikipedia API, all requests are cached internally for 72 hours. This means that changes to the English Wikipedia will be available in this service within 72 hours or less if the same entry has been requested before. Classes not requested within the last six hours are always guaranteed to be in sync with the latest version in Wikipedia.

The RDF/XML dump file is updated every 12 hours only.

[back to top]


The class definition text is taken from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) license. Accordingly, the ontology class definitions are available under the very same license.

Trademark Disclaimer:  Since this service returns class descriptions for potentially any series of characters, it cannot indicate automatically whether a name is a registered trademark or otherwise protected. If you want us to block a certain name, please send your request including proof of your rights on the name to our contact address listed below.. Any of the trademarks, service marks, collective marks, design rights or similar rights that are mentioned, used, or cited in this service are the property of their respective owners. Their use here does not imply that you may use them for any purpose other than for the same or a similar informational use as contemplated by the original authors of the underlying Wikipedia articles under the CC-BY-SA and GFDL licensing schemes. Productontology.org is neither endorsed by nor affiliated with any of the holders of any such rights and as such cannot grant any rights to use any otherwise protected materials. Your use of any such or similar incorporeal property is at your own risk.

[back to top]


Thanks to Stefano Bertolo, Julien Chaumond, Bob Ferris, Kingsley Idehen, Axel Polleres, Andreas Radinger, Alex Stolz, and Giovanni Tummarello for very valuable feedback, and to Katharina Siorpaes and Daniel Bachlechner, who contributed to the initial analysis of the stability of Wikipedia URIs back in 2007.

The work on The Product Types Ontology has been supported by the German Federal Ministry of Research (BMBF) by a grant under the KMU Innovativ program as part of the Intelligent Match project (FKZ 01IS10022B).

BMBF logo

[back to top]


Wikipedia: Liquefied petroleum gas, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquefied_petroleum_gas.

Hepp, Martin: GoodRelations: An Ontology for Describing Products and Services Offers on the Web, Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management (EKAW2008), Acitrezza, Italy, September 29 - October 3, 2008, Springer LNCS, Vol 5268, pp. 332-347.

Hepp, Martin; Siorpaes, Katharina; Bachlechner, Daniel: Harvesting Wiki Consensus: Using Wikipedia Entries as Vocabulary for Knowledge Management, IEEE Internet Computing, Vol. 11, No. 5, pp. 54-65, Sept-Oct 2007.

Valid XHTML 1.0 Strict