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The Product Types Ontology: Class Definition for "Odds"

This page is part of http://www.productontology.org/, a huge, precise dictionary of product types and brand names for marking up Web sites with schema.org or the GoodRelations e-commerce standard.

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http://www.productontology.org/

On this page: Usage(schema.org/Microdata, RDFa, Facebook) Contact Information Caching Policy License Acknowledgments References

pto:Odds (rdf:type owl:Class)

URI http://www.productontology.org/id/Odds
rdfs:subClassOf gr:ProductOrService, http://schema.org/Product
rdfs:label Odds (as a class or brand name of products of services)
Translation(s):  Шанцы@be;  Oportunitat@ca;  Poměr pravděpodobností@cs;  Odds@da;  Chance (Stochastik)@de;  Cuota (estadística)@es;  Momio@eu;  Cote (probabilités)@fr;  Odds@it;  オッズ@ja; 

rdfs:comment

Odds are a numerical expression, usually expressed as a pair of numbers, used in both gambling and statistics. In statistics, the odds for or odds of some event reflect the likelihood that the event will take place, while odds against reflect the likelihood that it will not. In gambling, the odds are the ratio of payoff to stake, and do not necessarily reflect exactly the probabilities. Odds are expressed in several ways (see below), and sometimes the term is used incorrectly to mean simply the probability of an event. Conventionally, gambling odds are expressed in the form "X to Y", where X and Y are numbers, and it is implied that the odds are odds against the event on which the gambler is considering wagering. In both gambling and statistics, the 'odds' are a numerical expression of the likelihood of some possible event. If you bet on rolling one of the six sides of a fair die, with a probability of one out of six, the odds are five to one against you (5 to 1), and you would win five times as much as your wager. If you bet six times and win once, you win five times your wager while also losing your wager five times, thus the odds offered here by the bookmaker reflect the probabilities of the die. In gambling, odds represent the ratio between the amounts staked by parties to a wager or bet. Thus, odds of 5 to 1 mean the first party (normally a bookmaker) stakes four times the amount staked by the second party. In simplest terms, 5 to 1 odds means if you bet a dollar (the "1" in the expression), and you win you get paid five dollars (the "5" in the expression), or 5 times 1. If you bet two dollars you would be paid ten dollars, or 5 times 2. If you bet three dollars and win, you would be paid fifteen dollars, or 5 times 3. If you bet one hundred dollars and win you would be paid five hundred dollars, or 5 times 100. If you lose any of those bets you would lose the dollar, or two dollars, or three dollars, or one hundred dollars. The odds for a possible event E are directly related to the (known or estimated) statistical probability of that event E. To express odds as a probability, or the other way around, requires a calculation. The natural way to interpret odds for (without calculating anything) is as the ratio of events to non-events in the long run. A simple example is that the (statistical) odds for rolling a three with a fair die are 1 to 5. This is because, if one rolls the die many times, and keeps a tally of the results, one expects 1 three event for every 5 times the die does not show three (i.e., a 1, 2, 4, 5 or 6). For example, if we roll the fair die 600 times, we would very much expect something in the neighborhood of 100 threes, and 500 of the other five possible outcomes. That is a ratio of 100 to 500, or simply 1 to 5. To express the (statistical) odds against, the order of the pair is reversed. Hence the odds against rolling a three with a fair die are 5 to 1. The probability of rolling a three with a fair die is the single number 1/6, roughly 0.17. In general, if the odds for event E are X (in favour) to Y (against), the probability of E occurring is equal to X/(X+Y). Conversely, if the probability of E can be expressed as a fraction M/N, the corresponding odds are M to N-M. The gambling and statistical uses of odds are closely interlinked. If a bet is a fair one, then the odds offered to the gamblers will perfectly reflect relative probabilities. A fair bet that a fair die will roll a three will pay the gambler $5 for a $1 wager (and return the bettor his or her wager) in the case of a three and nothing in any other case. The terms of the bet are fair, because on average, five rolls result in something other than a three, at a cost of $5, for every roll that results in a three and a net payout of $5. The profit and the expense exactly offset one another and so there is no advantage to gambling over the long run. If the odds being offered to the gamblers do not correspond to probability in this way then one of the parties to the bet has an advantage over the other. Casinos, for example, offer odds that place themselves at an advantage, which is how they guarantee themselves a profit and survive as businesses. The fairness of a particular gamble is more clear in a game involving relatively pure chance, such as the ping-pong ball method used in state lotteries in the United States. It is much harder to judge the fairness of the odds offered in a wager on a sporting event such as a football match. (Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odds)

Note: The extraction of the abstract from the Wikipedia page may sometimes yield imperfect results. We are improving the algorithm regularly.

is rdfs:domain of gr:category gr:color gr:condition gr:depth gr:hasEAN_UCC-13 gr:hasGTIN-14 gr:hasMPN gr:hasManufacturer gr:hasStockKeepingUnit gr:height gr:isAccessoryOrSparePartFor gr:isConsumableFor gr:isSimilarTo gr:weight gr:width
is rdfs:range of gr:includes gr:isAccessoryOrSparePartFor gr:isConsumableFor gr:isSimilarTo

Note: This is a generic list. Some of the properties may not be applicable to this particular type of object.

Trademark Disclaimer:  Since this service returns class descriptions for potentiall any series of characters, it cannot indicate automatically whether a name is a registered trademark or otherwise protected. We assume no liability for the absence of trademark rights and other damages. See the section "License" below for details.

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Usage

The following shows how to model that you offer to sell [a/an/some] Odds for $ 19.99.

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Microdata / Use with http://schema.org/Product

One of the most powerful usages of the class definitions from this site is to describe the type of your page and product for the schema.org product markup in Microdata syntax much more precisely.

Simply add the full URI of a class from this site, e.g. http://www.productontology.org/id/Odds as an additional type as follows:

<div itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Product">
    <link itemprop="additionalType" href="http://www.productontology.org/id/Odds" />
    <!-- other schema.org properties go in here -->
</div>		

Note: In HTML5, it is valid to use the <link> element in the body of a HTML document.

Here is a complete example:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"/>
    <title>An offer to sell a / some Odds</title>
</head>
<body>
<div itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Product" itemid="#product">
    <link itemprop="additionalType" href="http://www.productontology.org/id/Odds" />
    <span itemprop="name">.. a short name for the object ...</span>
    Product description: 
    <span itemprop="description">... a longer description ...</span>
    <div itemprop="offers" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Offer" itemid="#offer">
        <span itemprop="price">$19.99</span> 
        <link itemprop="availability" href="http://schema.org/InStock" />In stock
    </div>
</div>
</body>
</html>

Turtle Syntax

@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix pto: <http://www.productontology.org/id/> .
@prefix gr: <http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#> .
@prefix foo: <http://example.com/> .

# The object
foo:myObject a <http://www.productontology.org/id/Odds> ;
	a gr:SomeItems ;
	gr:name "... a short name for the object ..."@en ;
	gr:description "... a longer description ..."@en .

# The agent (person or company) who is offering it
foo:ACMECorp a gr:BusinessEntity ;
	gr:legalName "ACME Corp" ;
	gr:offers foo:Offer .
		
# The offer to sell it
foo:Offer a gr:Offering ;
	gr:includes foo:myObject;
	foaf:page <http://URI_of_the_page_containing_the_offer.com>;
	gr:hasBusinessFunction gr:Sell ;
	gr:validFrom "2011-01-24T00:00:00+01:00"^^xsd:dateTime ;
	gr:validThrough "2011-12-24T00:00:00+01:00"^^xsd:dateTime ;
	gr:hasPriceSpecification
         [ a gr:UnitPriceSpecification ;
           gr:hasCurrency "USD"^^xsd:string ;
           gr:hasCurrencyValue "19.99"^^xsd:float ;
           gr:validThrough "2011-12-24T00:00:00+01:00"^^xsd:dateTime ] .

Note: Replace gr:SomeItems (http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#SomeItems) by gr:Individual if you are describing a unique object of that kind (e.g. antique furniture).

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RDFa

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html version="HTML+RDFa 1.1" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
<head>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"/>
    <title>An offer to sell a / some Odds</title>
</head>
<body>
<div xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"
     xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#"
     xmlns:foaf="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"
     xmlns:gr="http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#"
     xmlns:pto="http://www.productontology.org/id/"
     xmlns:foo="http://example.com/"
     xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#">

<!-- The agent (person or company) who is offering it -->
   <div about="#ACMECorp" typeof="gr:BusinessEntity">
      <div property="gr:legalName">ACME Corp</div>
      <div rel="gr:offers">
<!-- The offer to sell it -->	
         <div about="#offer" typeof="gr:Offering">
            <div rel="gr:hasBusinessFunction" resource="http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#Sell"></div>
            <div rel="gr:includes">
<!-- The object -->	
               <div about="#myObject" typeof="http://www.productontology.org/id/Odds">
                  <div rel="rdf:type" resource="http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#SomeItems"></div>
                  <div property="gr:description" xml:lang="en">... a longer description ...</div>
                  <div property="gr:name" xml:lang="en">.. a short name for the object ...</div>
               </div>
            </div>
            <div rel="foaf:page" resource="http://URI_of_the_page_containing_the_offer"></div>
            <div rel="gr:hasPriceSpecification">
               <div typeof="gr:UnitPriceSpecification">
                  <div property="gr:hasCurrency" content="USD" datatype="xsd:string">$ </div>
                  <div property="gr:hasCurrencyValue" datatype="xsd:float">19.99</div>
                  <div property="gr:validThrough" content="2011-12-24T00:00:00+01:00" 
					   datatype="xsd:dateTime"></div>
               </div>
            </div>
            <div property="gr:validFrom" content="2011-01-24T00:00:00+01:00"
                 datatype="xsd:dateTime"></div>
            <div property="gr:validThrough" content="2011-12-24T00:00:00+01:00"
                 datatype="xsd:dateTime"></div>
         </div>
      </div>
   </div>
</div>
</body>
</html>

Note: Replace gr:SomeItems (http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#SomeItems) by gr:Individual if you are describing a unique object of that kind (e.g. antique furniture).

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RDF/XML

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<rdf:RDF xmlns:gr="http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#" 
  xmlns:pto="http://www.productontology.org/id/" 
  xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#" 
  xmlns:foaf="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/" 
  xmlns:foo="http://example.com/" 
  xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#">
<!-- The object -->
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="http://example.com/myObject">
    <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.productontology.org/id/Odds"/>    
    <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#SomeItems"/>
    <gr:name xml:lang="en">... a short name for the object ...</gr:name>
    <gr:description xml:lang="en">... a longer description ...</gr:description>
  </rdf:Description>
<!-- The agent (person or company) who is offering it -->
  <gr:BusinessEntity rdf:about="http://example.com/ACMECorp">
    <gr:legalName>ACME Corp</gr:legalName>
    <gr:offers rdf:resource="http://example.com/Offer" />
  </gr:BusinessEntity>
<!-- The offer to sell it -->   
  <gr:Offering rdf:about="http://example.com/Offer">
    <gr:includes rdf:resource="http://example.com/myObject" />
    <foaf:page rdf:resource="http://URI_of_the_page_containing_the_offer"/>
    <gr:hasBusinessFunction rdf:resource="http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#Sell"/>
    <gr:validFrom rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime">
      2011-01-24T00:00:00+01:00</gr:validFrom>
    <gr:validThrough rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime">
      2011-12-24T00:00:00+01:00</gr:validThrough>
    <gr:hasPriceSpecification>
      <gr:UnitPriceSpecification>
        <gr:hasCurrency rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">USD</gr:hasCurrency>
        <gr:hasCurrencyValue rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#float">19.99</gr:hasCurrencyValue>
        <gr:validThrough rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime">
          2011-12-24T00:00:00+01:00</gr:validThrough>
      </gr:UnitPriceSpecification>
    </gr:hasPriceSpecification>
  </gr:Offering>

</rdf:RDF>

Note: Replace gr:SomeItems (http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#SomeItems) by gr:Individual if you are describing a unique object of that kind (e.g. antique furniture).

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SPARQL Query

prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> 
prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> 
prefix pto: <http://www.productontology.org/id/> 
prefix gr: <http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#> 
prefix foo: <http://example.com/> 

# Find the cheapest offer for a Odds

SELECT * WHERE{
?company gr:offers ?offer .
?offer a gr:Offering .
?offer gr:hasBusinessFunction gr:Sell .
OPTIONAL {?offer rdfs:label ?label } .
OPTIONAL {?offer gr:name ?label } .
OPTIONAL {?offer rdfs:comment ?label } .
OPTIONAL {?offer gr:description ?label } .
?offer gr:hasPriceSpecification ?p .
?p a gr:UnitPriceSpecification .
?p gr:hasCurrency ?currency .
?p gr:hasCurrencyValue ?price .
?offer gr:includes ?product .
?product a <http://www.productontology.org/id/Odds> .
}
ORDER BY (?price)
LIMIT 10

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Facebook Open Graph Protocol

You can also use the class definitions from this site for better describing the type of your page or product for the Facebook Open Graph Protocol.

Simply define the namespace prefix pto: in the <html> element of your page

<html version="HTML+RDFa 1.1" 
	xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" 
	xmlns:pto="http://www.productontology.org/id/" 
	>

and use the compact URI (CURIE) pto:Odds in combination with og:type as follows:

	<meta property="og:type" content="pto:Odds"/>

A complete example is here.

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Contact Information

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp

E-Business and Web Science Research Group
Chair of General Management and E-Business
Universität der Bundeswehr München
Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39
D-85579 Neubiberg, Germany

Phone: +49 89 6004-4217
eMail: mhepp(at)computer.org (preferred mode of communication)
Web: http://www.heppnetz.de/
Web: http://www.unibw.de/ebusiness/

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Caching Policy

In order to minimize the load on the Wikipedia API, all requests are cached internally for 72 hours. This means that changes to the English Wikipedia will be available in this service within 72 hours or less if the same entry has been requested before. Classes not requested within the last six hours are always guaranteed to be in sync with the latest version in Wikipedia.

The RDF/XML dump file is updated every 12 hours only.

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License

The class definition text is taken from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) license. Accordingly, the ontology class definitions are available under the very same license.

Trademark Disclaimer:  Since this service returns class descriptions for potentially any series of characters, it cannot indicate automatically whether a name is a registered trademark or otherwise protected. If you want us to block a certain name, please send your request including proof of your rights on the name to our contact address listed below.. Any of the trademarks, service marks, collective marks, design rights or similar rights that are mentioned, used, or cited in this service are the property of their respective owners. Their use here does not imply that you may use them for any purpose other than for the same or a similar informational use as contemplated by the original authors of the underlying Wikipedia articles under the CC-BY-SA and GFDL licensing schemes. Productontology.org is neither endorsed by nor affiliated with any of the holders of any such rights and as such cannot grant any rights to use any otherwise protected materials. Your use of any such or similar incorporeal property is at your own risk.

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Acknowledgements

Thanks to Stefano Bertolo, Julien Chaumond, Bob Ferris, Kingsley Idehen, Axel Polleres, Andreas Radinger, Alex Stolz, and Giovanni Tummarello for very valuable feedback, and to Katharina Siorpaes and Daniel Bachlechner, who contributed to the initial analysis of the stability of Wikipedia URIs back in 2007.

The work on The Product Types Ontology has been supported by the German Federal Ministry of Research (BMBF) by a grant under the KMU Innovativ program as part of the Intelligent Match project (FKZ 01IS10022B).

BMBF logo

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References

Wikipedia: Odds, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odds.

Hepp, Martin: GoodRelations: An Ontology for Describing Products and Services Offers on the Web, Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management (EKAW2008), Acitrezza, Italy, September 29 - October 3, 2008, Springer LNCS, Vol 5268, pp. 332-347.

Hepp, Martin; Siorpaes, Katharina; Bachlechner, Daniel: Harvesting Wiki Consensus: Using Wikipedia Entries as Vocabulary for Knowledge Management, IEEE Internet Computing, Vol. 11, No. 5, pp. 54-65, Sept-Oct 2007.

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