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The Product Types Ontology: Class Definition for "Towing"

This page is part of http://www.productontology.org/, a huge, precise dictionary of product types and brand names for marking up Web sites with schema.org or the GoodRelations e-commerce standard.

Breaking news: schema.org has just implemented our proposal to define an additionalType property with the use of this service in mind!

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http://www.productontology.org/

On this page: Usage(schema.org/Microdata, RDFa, Facebook) Contact Information Caching Policy License Acknowledgments References

pto:Towing (rdf:type owl:Class)

URI http://www.productontology.org/id/Towing
rdfs:subClassOf gr:ProductOrService, http://schema.org/Product
rdfs:label Towing (as a class or brand name of products of services)
Translation(s):  Abschleppen@de;  Remolcar@es;  یدک‌کشی@fa;  Remorquage@fr;  Bogsering@sv;  Буксирування@uk; 

rdfs:comment

Towing is coupling two or more objects together so that they may be pulled by a designated power source or sources. The towing source may be a motorized land vehicle, vessel, animal, or human, the load anything that can be pulled. These may be joined by a chain, rope, bar, hitch, three-point, fifth wheel, coupling, drawbar, integrated platform, or other means of keeping the objects together while in motion. Towing may be as simple as a tractor pulling a tree stump. The most familiar form is the transport of disabled or otherwise indisposed vehicles by a tow truck or "wrecker." Other familiar forms are the tractor-trailer combination, and cargo or leisure vehicles coupled via ball or pintle and gudgeon trailer-hitches to smaller trucks and cars. In the opposite extreme are extremely heavy duty tank recovery vehicles, and enormous ballast tractors involved in heavy hauling towing loads stretching into the millions of pounds. Necessarily, government and industry standards have been developed for carriers, lighting, and coupling to ensure safety and interoperability of towing equipment. Historically, barges were hauled along rivers or canals using tow ropes drawn by men or draught animals walking along towpaths on the banks. Later came chain boats. Today, tug boats are used to maneuver larger vessels and barges. Over thousands of years the maritime industry has refined towing to a science. Aircraft tow one-another as well. Troop and cargo carrying gliders are towed behind powered aircraft, which remains a popular means of getting modern leisure gliders aloft. (Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Towing)

Note: The extraction of the abstract from the Wikipedia page may sometimes yield imperfect results. We are improving the algorithm regularly.

is rdfs:domain of gr:category gr:color gr:condition gr:depth gr:hasEAN_UCC-13 gr:hasGTIN-14 gr:hasMPN gr:hasManufacturer gr:hasStockKeepingUnit gr:height gr:isAccessoryOrSparePartFor gr:isConsumableFor gr:isSimilarTo gr:weight gr:width
is rdfs:range of gr:includes gr:isAccessoryOrSparePartFor gr:isConsumableFor gr:isSimilarTo

Note: This is a generic list. Some of the properties may not be applicable to this particular type of object.

Trademark Disclaimer:  Since this service returns class descriptions for potentiall any series of characters, it cannot indicate automatically whether a name is a registered trademark or otherwise protected. We assume no liability for the absence of trademark rights and other damages. See the section "License" below for details.

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Usage

The following shows how to model that you offer to sell [a/an/some] Towing for $ 19.99.

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Microdata / Use with http://schema.org/Product

One of the most powerful usages of the class definitions from this site is to describe the type of your page and product for the schema.org product markup in Microdata syntax much more precisely.

Simply add the full URI of a class from this site, e.g. http://www.productontology.org/id/Towing as an additional type as follows:

<div itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Product">
    <link itemprop="additionalType" href="http://www.productontology.org/id/Towing" />
    <!-- other schema.org properties go in here -->
</div>		

Note: In HTML5, it is valid to use the <link> element in the body of a HTML document.

Here is a complete example:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"/>
    <title>An offer to sell a / some Towing</title>
</head>
<body>
<div itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Product" itemid="#product">
    <link itemprop="additionalType" href="http://www.productontology.org/id/Towing" />
    <span itemprop="name">.. a short name for the object ...</span>
    Product description: 
    <span itemprop="description">... a longer description ...</span>
    <div itemprop="offers" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Offer" itemid="#offer">
        <span itemprop="price">$19.99</span> 
        <link itemprop="availability" href="http://schema.org/InStock" />In stock
    </div>
</div>
</body>
</html>

Turtle Syntax

@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix pto: <http://www.productontology.org/id/> .
@prefix gr: <http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#> .
@prefix foo: <http://example.com/> .

# The object
foo:myObject a <http://www.productontology.org/id/Towing> ;
	a gr:SomeItems ;
	gr:name "... a short name for the object ..."@en ;
	gr:description "... a longer description ..."@en .

# The agent (person or company) who is offering it
foo:ACMECorp a gr:BusinessEntity ;
	gr:legalName "ACME Corp" ;
	gr:offers foo:Offer .
		
# The offer to sell it
foo:Offer a gr:Offering ;
	gr:includes foo:myObject;
	foaf:page <http://URI_of_the_page_containing_the_offer.com>;
	gr:hasBusinessFunction gr:Sell ;
	gr:validFrom "2011-01-24T00:00:00+01:00"^^xsd:dateTime ;
	gr:validThrough "2011-12-24T00:00:00+01:00"^^xsd:dateTime ;
	gr:hasPriceSpecification
         [ a gr:UnitPriceSpecification ;
           gr:hasCurrency "USD"^^xsd:string ;
           gr:hasCurrencyValue "19.99"^^xsd:float ;
           gr:validThrough "2011-12-24T00:00:00+01:00"^^xsd:dateTime ] .

Note: Replace gr:SomeItems (http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#SomeItems) by gr:Individual if you are describing a unique object of that kind (e.g. antique furniture).

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RDFa

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html version="HTML+RDFa 1.1" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
<head>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"/>
    <title>An offer to sell a / some Towing</title>
</head>
<body>
<div xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"
     xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#"
     xmlns:foaf="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"
     xmlns:gr="http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#"
     xmlns:pto="http://www.productontology.org/id/"
     xmlns:foo="http://example.com/"
     xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#">

<!-- The agent (person or company) who is offering it -->
   <div about="#ACMECorp" typeof="gr:BusinessEntity">
      <div property="gr:legalName">ACME Corp</div>
      <div rel="gr:offers">
<!-- The offer to sell it -->	
         <div about="#offer" typeof="gr:Offering">
            <div rel="gr:hasBusinessFunction" resource="http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#Sell"></div>
            <div rel="gr:includes">
<!-- The object -->	
               <div about="#myObject" typeof="http://www.productontology.org/id/Towing">
                  <div rel="rdf:type" resource="http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#SomeItems"></div>
                  <div property="gr:description" xml:lang="en">... a longer description ...</div>
                  <div property="gr:name" xml:lang="en">.. a short name for the object ...</div>
               </div>
            </div>
            <div rel="foaf:page" resource="http://URI_of_the_page_containing_the_offer"></div>
            <div rel="gr:hasPriceSpecification">
               <div typeof="gr:UnitPriceSpecification">
                  <div property="gr:hasCurrency" content="USD" datatype="xsd:string">$ </div>
                  <div property="gr:hasCurrencyValue" datatype="xsd:float">19.99</div>
                  <div property="gr:validThrough" content="2011-12-24T00:00:00+01:00" 
					   datatype="xsd:dateTime"></div>
               </div>
            </div>
            <div property="gr:validFrom" content="2011-01-24T00:00:00+01:00"
                 datatype="xsd:dateTime"></div>
            <div property="gr:validThrough" content="2011-12-24T00:00:00+01:00"
                 datatype="xsd:dateTime"></div>
         </div>
      </div>
   </div>
</div>
</body>
</html>

Note: Replace gr:SomeItems (http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#SomeItems) by gr:Individual if you are describing a unique object of that kind (e.g. antique furniture).

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RDF/XML

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<rdf:RDF xmlns:gr="http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#" 
  xmlns:pto="http://www.productontology.org/id/" 
  xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#" 
  xmlns:foaf="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/" 
  xmlns:foo="http://example.com/" 
  xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#">
<!-- The object -->
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="http://example.com/myObject">
    <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.productontology.org/id/Towing"/>    
    <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#SomeItems"/>
    <gr:name xml:lang="en">... a short name for the object ...</gr:name>
    <gr:description xml:lang="en">... a longer description ...</gr:description>
  </rdf:Description>
<!-- The agent (person or company) who is offering it -->
  <gr:BusinessEntity rdf:about="http://example.com/ACMECorp">
    <gr:legalName>ACME Corp</gr:legalName>
    <gr:offers rdf:resource="http://example.com/Offer" />
  </gr:BusinessEntity>
<!-- The offer to sell it -->   
  <gr:Offering rdf:about="http://example.com/Offer">
    <gr:includes rdf:resource="http://example.com/myObject" />
    <foaf:page rdf:resource="http://URI_of_the_page_containing_the_offer"/>
    <gr:hasBusinessFunction rdf:resource="http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#Sell"/>
    <gr:validFrom rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime">
      2011-01-24T00:00:00+01:00</gr:validFrom>
    <gr:validThrough rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime">
      2011-12-24T00:00:00+01:00</gr:validThrough>
    <gr:hasPriceSpecification>
      <gr:UnitPriceSpecification>
        <gr:hasCurrency rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">USD</gr:hasCurrency>
        <gr:hasCurrencyValue rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#float">19.99</gr:hasCurrencyValue>
        <gr:validThrough rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime">
          2011-12-24T00:00:00+01:00</gr:validThrough>
      </gr:UnitPriceSpecification>
    </gr:hasPriceSpecification>
  </gr:Offering>

</rdf:RDF>

Note: Replace gr:SomeItems (http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#SomeItems) by gr:Individual if you are describing a unique object of that kind (e.g. antique furniture).

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SPARQL Query

prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> 
prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> 
prefix pto: <http://www.productontology.org/id/> 
prefix gr: <http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#> 
prefix foo: <http://example.com/> 

# Find the cheapest offer for a Towing

SELECT * WHERE{
?company gr:offers ?offer .
?offer a gr:Offering .
?offer gr:hasBusinessFunction gr:Sell .
OPTIONAL {?offer rdfs:label ?label } .
OPTIONAL {?offer gr:name ?label } .
OPTIONAL {?offer rdfs:comment ?label } .
OPTIONAL {?offer gr:description ?label } .
?offer gr:hasPriceSpecification ?p .
?p a gr:UnitPriceSpecification .
?p gr:hasCurrency ?currency .
?p gr:hasCurrencyValue ?price .
?offer gr:includes ?product .
?product a <http://www.productontology.org/id/Towing> .
}
ORDER BY (?price)
LIMIT 10

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Facebook Open Graph Protocol

You can also use the class definitions from this site for better describing the type of your page or product for the Facebook Open Graph Protocol.

Simply define the namespace prefix pto: in the <html> element of your page

<html version="HTML+RDFa 1.1" 
	xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" 
	xmlns:pto="http://www.productontology.org/id/" 
	>

and use the compact URI (CURIE) pto:Towing in combination with og:type as follows:

	<meta property="og:type" content="pto:Towing"/>

A complete example is here.

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Contact Information

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp

E-Business and Web Science Research Group
Chair of General Management and E-Business
Universität der Bundeswehr München
Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39
D-85579 Neubiberg, Germany

Phone: +49 89 6004-4217
eMail: mhepp(at)computer.org (preferred mode of communication)
Web: http://www.heppnetz.de/
Web: http://www.unibw.de/ebusiness/

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Caching Policy

In order to minimize the load on the Wikipedia API, all requests are cached internally for 72 hours. This means that changes to the English Wikipedia will be available in this service within 72 hours or less if the same entry has been requested before. Classes not requested within the last six hours are always guaranteed to be in sync with the latest version in Wikipedia.

The RDF/XML dump file is updated every 12 hours only.

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License

The class definition text is taken from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) license. Accordingly, the ontology class definitions are available under the very same license.

Trademark Disclaimer:  Since this service returns class descriptions for potentially any series of characters, it cannot indicate automatically whether a name is a registered trademark or otherwise protected. If you want us to block a certain name, please send your request including proof of your rights on the name to our contact address listed below.. Any of the trademarks, service marks, collective marks, design rights or similar rights that are mentioned, used, or cited in this service are the property of their respective owners. Their use here does not imply that you may use them for any purpose other than for the same or a similar informational use as contemplated by the original authors of the underlying Wikipedia articles under the CC-BY-SA and GFDL licensing schemes. Productontology.org is neither endorsed by nor affiliated with any of the holders of any such rights and as such cannot grant any rights to use any otherwise protected materials. Your use of any such or similar incorporeal property is at your own risk.

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Acknowledgements

Thanks to Stefano Bertolo, Julien Chaumond, Bob Ferris, Kingsley Idehen, Axel Polleres, Andreas Radinger, Alex Stolz, and Giovanni Tummarello for very valuable feedback, and to Katharina Siorpaes and Daniel Bachlechner, who contributed to the initial analysis of the stability of Wikipedia URIs back in 2007.

The work on The Product Types Ontology has been supported by the German Federal Ministry of Research (BMBF) by a grant under the KMU Innovativ program as part of the Intelligent Match project (FKZ 01IS10022B).

BMBF logo

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References

Wikipedia: Towing, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Towing.

Hepp, Martin: GoodRelations: An Ontology for Describing Products and Services Offers on the Web, Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management (EKAW2008), Acitrezza, Italy, September 29 - October 3, 2008, Springer LNCS, Vol 5268, pp. 332-347.

Hepp, Martin; Siorpaes, Katharina; Bachlechner, Daniel: Harvesting Wiki Consensus: Using Wikipedia Entries as Vocabulary for Knowledge Management, IEEE Internet Computing, Vol. 11, No. 5, pp. 54-65, Sept-Oct 2007.

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